4. The People’s Bank of China has long intervened in foreign-exchange markets to hedge against excessive volatility. Since August, however, such intervention has expanded from the domestic spot market, which covers daily transactions, to include the offshore renminbi market in Hong Kong, as well as both onshore and offshore futures markets, traders say.
5. The M2 money supply increased by 11.3 percent, below our projected target of around 13 percent.